Primary & Secondary Atomization

One of the major thrusts in our research group is investigating the fundamental behaviors of liqiud atomization. This process is especially important in liquid-fueled propulsion systems, such as, diesel, gas-turbine and rocket engines. In these devices, the system performance is conditioned by the fuel and oxidizer droplet size distributions, which are usually the rate-controlling processes. Evaporation of fuel (and oxidizer) and the ensuing combustion are accelerated if the droplet size is smaller -- any process leading to a reduction in drop size is of prime importance in combustor design. Thus, immediately after the liquid fuel is injected into the combustion chamber, the liquid stream must be disintegrated into droplets. Many techniques, such as swirling, jet impingement, air-blast atomization, and liquid jet in crossflow are used for this purpose in contemporary liquid-fueled combustion devices. We study these processes to identify fundamental physics of primary and secondary atomization phenomena.

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Shock Droplet Interactions

Liquid Jet in Crossflow Adaptive Mesh Refinement
Liquid Jet Injection Pulsed (20 Hz) Liquid Jet Injection
Impinging Liquid Jets: We = 27.5 Impinging Liquid Jets: We = 440
Oscillatory Breakup of Liquid Droplets Bag Breakup of Liquid Droplets

Relevant Recent Publications
  1. (invited) L. Bravo, N. Jain, P. Khare, M. Murugan, A. Ghoshal, A. Flatau, (2020) "Physical Aspects of CMAS Particle Dynamics and Deposition in Turboshaft Engines", Journal of Materials Research, 35(17), pp. 2249-2259. [PDF]. DOI:
  2. (invited) H. Ganti, P. Khare, L. Bravo, (2020) "Binary Collision of CMAS Droplets - Part II: Unequal Sized Droplets",
    Journal of Materials Research, 35(17), pp. 2275-2287. [PDF]. DOI:
  3. (invited) H. Ganti, P. Khare, L. Bravo, (2020) "Binary Collision of CMAS Droplets - Part I: Equal Sized Droplets",
    Journal of Materials Research, 35(17), pp. 2260-2274. [PDF]. DOI:
  4. V. Notaro, P. Khare, J.G. Lee, (2018) "Mixing Characteristics of Non-Newtonian Impinging Jets at Elevated Pressures",
    Flow Turbulence and Combustion. DOI:
  5. P. Khare, V. Yang, (2015) "Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Liquid Droplet Breakup: Child Droplet Statistics",
    proceedings of ICLASS 2015, 13th Triennial Int. Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems.
  6. P. Khare, S. Wang, V. Yang, (2015) Modeling of Finite-Size Particles and Droplets in Multiphase Flows",
    Chinese J. of Aeronautics 28(4), 974-982.